Designing SIA - Retrofitting
Many existing industrial areas which have been established years ago were planned and implemented without any sustainability considerations. Some of them developed organically without a proper planning at all. Old industrial areas are often too densely constructed without an adequate infrastructure and sufficient open green spaces. They have no proper or only an inappropriate sewage and waste collection system, and no facilities for wastewater treatment. The electricity lines are too weak to cater for more, and more workshops and production sites and public transport in the area are insufficient for a growing number of workers and employees. The results are environmental pollution, bad working and living conditions and growing conflicts with neighbouring communities.
To introduce sustainability issues properly planned retrofitting measures have to be implemented which address the following areas:
Improving the infrastructure can make already a great difference to the previous situation. Traffic ways should be refurbished and small pathways paved. Open sewage drains which are often filled with waste need to be cleaned, repaired and covered. Regular maintenance and a gradual implementation of an underground sewage system should make sure that surface and wastewater is managed properly. The sewage of the park should either be fed into the communal sewage system or treated in a central wastewater treatment plant at the periphery of the industrial area. Scattered waste and informal waste dumps need to be removed and a reliable waste collection system introduced.
"Greening" of park:
The planting of trees and other native plants as well as measures to re-naturalise vacant plots, unused areas and road sites are able to improve microclimate, air quality, biodiversity and the general appearance of the industrial area. If space is available, small parks or leisure areas should be implemented for recreational purposes. If companies leave the park their plots may be used to create green spaces, while other companies are asked to improve their own plots accordingly. If the climate allows, roof gardens or roof greening could be established on large factory buildings.
Introduction of renewable energy and waste energy use:
Wherever possible renewable energy generation and use should be promoted, e.g. for street lighting, lighting of public and recreational places and other public facilities. Companies in the industrial area should be encouraged to use their roofs for solar energy generation. This needs energy storage facilities or an electricity grid that is able to accept and reward energy from solar panels. The possibilities of using waste energy should be examined as well as in particular the exchange of heat or steam if the park is able to interlink energy generators and users.
Improving security in the park:
Security in industrial areas is often a problem, in particular during night. Good street lighting, the installation of a camera observation network and security personnel patrolling through the industrial area can improve the situation. In addition it makes sense to have entry and exit point with access control. It helps to prevent burglary and reduce further security threats to the park. A safe and reliable public transport system is also an important safety element. If travelling outside of the industrial area during night is not safe, possibility to stay overnight, in particular for female employees, should be made available.
Improving the park management:
Retrofitting of existing industrial areas is not only a technical but also a management issue and needs the change of the management’s attitude. A management that becomes pro-active and service oriented is needed. The required retrofitting plans have to be developed in a participatory way, involving all relevant stakeholders. After implementation permanent monitoring of the gained achievements is required to make them lasting and to identify possibilities of further improvement.
Changing the attitude of the companies in the park:
Retrofitting of existing industrial areas needs the mobilisation of the majority of resident companies. The companies have to agree on certain standards they want to achieve and a common Code of Conduct (e.g. CSR Charter) needs to be formulated. The charter will set rules for networking and cooperation in the park, energy and resource efficiency, environmental protection, occupational health and safety as well as park security. Management shall be given the permission to monitor and enforce the set rules.
Participation of local community:
To increase acceptance of the industrial area among the local community, transparency measures have to be introduced. While information is provided on the planned and implemented retrofitting measures, an ongoing participation of the population is secured for any further development of the industrial area.
Experiences of GIZ for retrofitting industrial areas or reactivating former industrial land are given in the following documents:
Sustainable Management of Industrial Areas (SMIA, GedZI (French), ProCAIS (Spanish)) is an innovative approach to systematically improve the sustainable management of industrial areas (IA) promoting and supporting the development of resilient Industrial Areas. Industrial areas applying SMIA aim at fostering Green and Inclusive Economy
by increasing competitiveness through efficient use of both, non-renewable and renewable resources;
by generating green and decent jobs;
by minimising environmental and climate impact, as well as risks; and
by continuously improving the overall efficiency of management and cooperation structures.
Thus, SMIA contributes to the SDG goal 9 “Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure” and to climate-resilient, sustainable development.
The original method applied in 2006 by e-Parc, France, UNEP-IE Paris, and PREMAnet-GIZ drew on the combination of three well established and widely used and cost-effective methods and tools, i.e. PREMA© (www.premanet.net), APELL and Eco-mapping.
Since then, the original concept has been profoundly modified, enlarged and enhanced during applications in Tunisia (ReCapZI, CCP-RAC), Indonesia (GIZ-EU), Ghana (GIZ-PREMAnet-CAD), Peru (GIZ) and Mexico (GIZ). SMIA 4.0 version integrates more comprehensively climate change and biodiversity aspects, thus enhancing the resilience perspective (Sustainable Management of Resilient Industrial Areas SMaresIA).
A French language version (GedZI – Gestion durable des Zones Industrielles) specifically considering the situation in Tunisa was developed by GIZ ReCapZI.
A Spanish version (ProCAIS – Programa de Competitividad de Áreas Industriales a través de la Sustentabilidad) specifically consider the situation in Mexico was developed by GIZ PGAU II.
During a workshop in December 2012, the most affected Ministries articulated the priorities concerning the planning, design and setting up of industrial parks in Tunisia. The top priorities identified were the establishment of a feasibility study before setting up an industrial park, the elaboration of a Site Master Plan for each industrial park (including existing ones), the elaboration of an exhaustive list of criteria for selecting a site for industrial parks, and the elaboration of propositions for a better management within industrial parks. The elaboration of a manual that helps policy makers and planning departments to develop a Site Master Plan as a strategic tool for each industrial park followed.
Common effluent collection and treatment systems in industrial parks are often either not existing, dysfunctional or not functioning properly in many developing countries. The causes are diverse and must be thoroughly examined from case to case.
The tool includes case studies, best practice examples and management manuals elaborated by GIZ and KfW projects in various Asian countries.