Designing SIA - Retrofitting
Many existing industrial areas which have been established years ago were planned and implemented without any sustainability considerations. Some of them developed organically without a proper planning at all. Old industrial areas are often too densely constructed without an adequate infrastructure and sufficient open green spaces. They have no proper or only an inappropriate sewage and waste collection system, and no facilities for wastewater treatment. The electricity lines are too weak to cater for more, and more workshops and production sites and public transport in the area are insufficient for a growing number of workers and employees. The results are environmental pollution, bad working and living conditions and growing conflicts with neighbouring communities.
To introduce sustainability issues properly planned retrofitting measures have to be implemented which address the following areas:
Improving the infrastructure can make already a great difference to the previous situation. Traffic ways should be refurbished and small pathways paved. Open sewage drains which are often filled with waste need to be cleaned, repaired and covered. Regular maintenance and a gradual implementation of an underground sewage system should make sure that surface and wastewater is managed properly. The sewage of the park should either be fed into the communal sewage system or treated in a central wastewater treatment plant at the periphery of the industrial area. Scattered waste and informal waste dumps need to be removed and a reliable waste collection system introduced.
"Greening" of park:
The planting of trees and other native plants as well as measures to re-naturalise vacant plots, unused areas and road sites are able to improve microclimate, air quality, biodiversity and the general appearance of the industrial area. If space is available, small parks or leisure areas should be implemented for recreational purposes. If companies leave the park their plots may be used to create green spaces, while other companies are asked to improve their own plots accordingly. If the climate allows, roof gardens or roof greening could be established on large factory buildings.
Introduction of renewable energy and waste energy use:
Wherever possible renewable energy generation and use should be promoted, e.g. for street lighting, lighting of public and recreational places and other public facilities. Companies in the industrial area should be encouraged to use their roofs for solar energy generation. This needs energy storage facilities or an electricity grid that is able to accept and reward energy from solar panels. The possibilities of using waste energy should be examined as well as in particular the exchange of heat or steam if the park is able to interlink energy generators and users.
Improving security in the park:
Security in industrial areas is often a problem, in particular during night. Good street lighting, the installation of a camera observation network and security personnel patrolling through the industrial area can improve the situation. In addition it makes sense to have entry and exit point with access control. It helps to prevent burglary and reduce further security threats to the park. A safe and reliable public transport system is also an important safety element. If travelling outside of the industrial area during night is not safe, possibility to stay overnight, in particular for female employees, should be made available.
Improving the park management:
Retrofitting of existing industrial areas is not only a technical but also a management issue and needs the change of the management’s attitude. A management that becomes pro-active and service oriented is needed. The required retrofitting plans have to be developed in a participatory way, involving all relevant stakeholders. After implementation permanent monitoring of the gained achievements is required to make them lasting and to identify possibilities of further improvement.
Changing the attitude of the companies in the park:
Retrofitting of existing industrial areas needs the mobilisation of the majority of resident companies. The companies have to agree on certain standards they want to achieve and a common Code of Conduct (e.g. CSR Charter) needs to be formulated. The charter will set rules for networking and cooperation in the park, energy and resource efficiency, environmental protection, occupational health and safety as well as park security. Management shall be given the permission to monitor and enforce the set rules.
Participation of local community:
To increase acceptance of the industrial area among the local community, transparency measures have to be introduced. While information is provided on the planned and implemented retrofitting measures, an ongoing participation of the population is secured for any further development of the industrial area.
Experiences of GIZ for retrofitting industrial areas or reactivating former industrial land are given in the following documents:
The tool refers to methodology and guidelines to reactivate brownfields for industrial development. Investors looking for real estate should benefit from a shorter process for planning and locating their businesses compared to setting up on green-fields. Furthermore, green-fields can be saved, jobs created and the quality of life for surrounding neighbourhoods improved.
Principles of cleaner production may be applied to processes, products and services with the objective of increasing overall efficiency and reduce risks to humans and the environment. Cleaner Production Clubs (CPC) focus on the respective principles. For companies participating in CPC, the basics of cleaner production are adapted to their individual needs.
Driving force for the establishment of CPCs is a win-win approach. Participants benefit from mutual backing while exchanging experiences on production activities. Expected economic benefits and reduced environmental pollution motivate the involved companies to participate in collective arrangements which are expected to lead to improved production activities on the level of the enterprises as well as improved living and working conditions in and around industrial areas.
The tool helps to increase human resource capacities and capabilities, fosters the exchange of experiences, creates synergies, gains cost savings, increases performance and profit, and reduces the environmental impact.
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is the commitment of the private sector to social concerns beyond legal requirements. This can be either company-internal commitment (employees’ welfare) or in the social environment of the enterprise (community relations). Ideally, CSR is implemented in the area of business operation.
Sustainable development in Industrial Areas requires an integrated approach towards stimulating economic growth, embedding environmental protection and economic development in a stable and prosperous social environment. Well-developed CSR projects enhance community relations, ease conflict potential, enable communal service providers / communal small businesses to meet industrial park requirements and support the capacity building of more employable local workforce.
Capacity Development is the basis for a proactive strategy requiring a collaborative effort for on-site emergency plans of the corporate sector, the civil society, first regulators, and planning and supervisory administrative units.
The Human Resource Development Programme in industrial Disaster Risk Management in India (HRDP iDRM), and the Human Capacity Development Programme Environmental Planning and Disaster Risk Management (EPDRM) produced a series of standalone training modules covering the key topics of industrial disaster risk management and response.
APELL is a process designed by UNEP to identify and create awareness of hazards and risks, to initiate measures for risk reduction, accident prevention and mitigation, and to develop coordinated preparedness among the local industry, authorities and population.
APELL is a coordinated planning process that has two parallel and complementary objectives:
- Creating a dialogue about hazards, risks, capabilities and plans involving all Stakeholders, leading to consensus on responsibilities and expectations for all community members;
- Allowing a community to increase its resilience (the ability to recover from incidents) and reduce its vulnerability (susceptibility to damaging effects of a hazard) by building local capacity for multi-stakeholder responses and enabling open dialogue, building mutual understanding, and leveraging the existing resources in an effective way.
The workbook can be used to provide the key steps for organizing, planning and implementing of an Energy Management (EM) Programme in an Industrial Park and is therefore also addressed at environmental and energy management staff in companies. The EM Workbook provides a guideline for this process and important templates required to set-up an Energy Management Programme for an Industrial Park.
On the eve of the World Environment Day, the Andhra Pradesh Industrial Infrastructure Corporation Ltd. (APllC), in technical cooperation with GIZ (IGEP), initiated the one month long (from 5th June to 5th July 2013) "Industrial Environmental Improvement Drive" (IEID) in about 75 selected Industrial Parks of APIIC spread across all 15 zones in Andhra Pradesh. The month long IEID took place in 2014 in about 58 selected Industrial Parks of APIIC spread across all its 8 zones in Andhra Pradesh. In 2016 it was organised by the Vapi Industries Association together with the Gujarat Pollution Control Board, the Gujarat Industrial Development Corporation, the Notified Area Authority, the Vapi Green Enviro Ltd. and the Lions Club of Vapi.
Role and simulation games are efficient instruments to make training more lively and participatory and to better understand a complex context.
GIZ supported the development of two such games dealing with the context of sustainable industrial areas.
Industropia is a role game in which participants learn about sustainability aspects of industrial areas. The game simulates a situation in which different stakeholders of an industrial area come together to sketch a sustainability concept for retrofitting and enlargement of their site. The game is supplemented by the presence of investors which are looking for industrial areas to locate their businesses. The game is based on the experience of the GIZ Sustainable Industrial Area Working Group which emerged from the sector network TUEWAS.
Game of Zones is a learning game based on the German Sustainable Building Council (DGNB) rating system for industrial sites applied in India. The objective of the game is to learn about the different sustainability concepts, identify synergies across categories and to discuss the concepts in a team and between groups. Recently the game was amended with a component for planning adaptation of existing industrial parks to the impacts of climate change.
Social aspects can only be addressed if all stakeholders are involved in a participatory way. A suitable instrument is the stakeholder dialogue. Stakeholder Dialogues (SD) are used to moderate a discussion between relevant public and private stakeholders. Dialogue platforms offer a space to exchange interests or explain activities undertaken by one or the other actor.
Two forms of SDs have been implemented in GIZ projects:
- Community Dialogue Platform (CDP)
- Round Table (RT)
Both, Community Dialogue Platforms and Round Tables, shall create awareness and understanding between stakeholders, and ease potential stress and conflicts related to environmental impacts and pollution. SDs provide a basis for an interactive action planning between policy makers, community, companies and other stakeholders.
The Sustainability Calculator for Industrial Areas has been designed to guide the decision making of developers and managers of Industrial Areas (IA), who want to improve environmental and social impacts of their IA, increase their competitiveness in international markets and attract new investors and clients by integrating profitable voluntary measures into the design and management of their IA. The results generated by this tool allow estimating the potential economic benefits of voluntary investments into improving the sustainability of a IA. Additionally, they visualize the impact of potential investments on the sustainability of an IA, generating a diagram for the user that assists in identifying voluntary measures that impact positively on the sustainability of your area while simultaneously generating profits.
The calculator offers measures that can be applied to both new and existing IAs that wish to improve their performance. The tool is embedded in a web page with further information re Sustainable Industrial Areas, Testimonials from other industrial zone developers and managers re the benefits they were able to reap by investing in specific sustainability measures, and contact information for international and local experts.