Designing SIA - Master planning
A good planning process is one cornerstone of a sustainable industrial area. This applies equally to both, new-planned industrial parks and old ones that need to be retrofitted. Ideally, sustainability criteria are included right from the start during the site master planning and of course during all following planning steps. Not only the situation at the moment of initiating the planning process of a new park needs to be considered, but also the potential future development of the park. This needs a clear park concept from the beginning. Besides considering economic and environmental aspects, social participation within the park and between the park and the local community is crucial for an industrial park to be successful. Therefore, stakeholder participation needs to be included already during the planning steps.
Based on a clear development concept (size and type of the industrial area, type of industry sector, envisaged mix of companies, service facilities needed, needs for environmental protection, required social facilities, etc.) master planning needs to address the following issues:
Integration of park in surrounding infrastructure:
Since a park has to be supplied with raw materials and the produced goods need to be transported to the customers, accessibility of the area and its connection to surrounding infrastructure is essential. Good access is also important for the commuting employees and workers. Master planning must therefore secure a good connection to the local goods and passenger transport systems as well as the energy supply and communication system.
Efficient land use planning:
During master planning the existing land use planning of the region needs to be considered and interlinked with land use planning inside the industrial area. While using the available space in a sensible manner (minimising needs for extensive levelling), the relation between buildings and green open spaces is important. To cater for the needs of the industry but also reserve contiguous space for the improvement of microclimate, the protection of biodiversity and the recreation of people working onsite, it is important that land is used efficiently.
Planning of park infrastructure:
The infrastructure of a park comprises of roads capable to accommodate the foreseeable development of traffic as well as bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure, access points and parking areas to manage the stationary traffic. Apart from the general road transport system, the entire logistics of goods entering or leaving the park has to be planned. This needs also entry points like harbours, train terminals, warehouses or other types of logistic hubs, transport facilities like pipelines for gases and liquids, conveyor belts for bulk material and respective storage, loading and pumping facilities. The provision of the telecommunication infrastructure (telephone, internet, high speed telecommunication cables, etc.) must also be included into master planning as well as the social infrastructure.
Planning of energy supply:
Energy supply and distribution needs to be based on an integrated system of incoming energy from outside the park and energy generation including utilisation of waste energy and renewable energies in the park. This requires an integrated electricity, gas and steam distribution network and respective energy generation, conversion and distribution facilities.
Planning of water supply, waste and wastewater treatment facilities:
Responding to the different demands for drinking and process water needed by the companies in the industrial area, several water qualities must be offered, ideally in a cascading way based on re-use concepts to save water. During master planning the required infrastructure and facilities to provide drinking and process water, and to collect and treat wastewater must be taken into account. Possibilities for rainwater harvesting could also be part of the water provision and distribution planning. Infrastructure and facilities for waste collection, transport and treatment as well as waste-to-energy plants are part of master planning too.
Planning of environmental, emergency and social facilities:
To protect the environment and to prepare for production related risks and natural disasters the parks needs respective automated monitoring systems, online reporting and supervision centres and emergency response units like fire brigades and rescue facilities. For employees and residents in the park master planning should foresee the provision of housing, shopping, education, health, sports and other recreational facilities.
There are various experiences, tools and documents on site master planning available which have been developed by GIZ and its partners.
Wastewater management in industrial parks
Common effluent collection and treatment systems in industrial parks are often either not existing, dysfunctional or not functioning properly in many developing countries. The causes are diverse and must be thoroughly examined from case to case.
The tool includes case studies, best practice examples and management manuals elaborated by GIZ and KfW projects in various Asian countries.