Designing SIA - Master planning
A good planning process is one cornerstone of a sustainable industrial area. This applies equally to both, new-planned industrial parks and old ones that need to be retrofitted. Ideally, sustainability criteria are included right from the start during the site master planning and of course during all following planning steps. Not only the situation at the moment of initiating the planning process of a new park needs to be considered, but also the potential future development of the park. This needs a clear park concept from the beginning. Besides considering economic and environmental aspects, social participation within the park and between the park and the local community is crucial for an industrial park to be successful. Therefore, stakeholder participation needs to be included already during the planning steps.
Based on a clear development concept (size and type of the industrial area, type of industry sector, envisaged mix of companies, service facilities needed, needs for environmental protection, required social facilities, etc.) master planning needs to address the following issues:
Integration of park in surrounding infrastructure:
Since a park has to be supplied with raw materials and the produced goods need to be transported to the customers, accessibility of the area and its connection to surrounding infrastructure is essential. Good access is also important for the commuting employees and workers. Master planning must therefore secure a good connection to the local goods and passenger transport systems as well as the energy supply and communication system.
Efficient land use planning:
During master planning the existing land use planning of the region needs to be considered and interlinked with land use planning inside the industrial area. While using the available space in a sensible manner (minimising needs for extensive levelling), the relation between buildings and green open spaces is important. To cater for the needs of the industry but also reserve contiguous space for the improvement of microclimate, the protection of biodiversity and the recreation of people working onsite, it is important that land is used efficiently.
Planning of park infrastructure:
The infrastructure of a park comprises of roads capable to accommodate the foreseeable development of traffic as well as bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure, access points and parking areas to manage the stationary traffic. Apart from the general road transport system, the entire logistics of goods entering or leaving the park has to be planned. This needs also entry points like harbours, train terminals, warehouses or other types of logistic hubs, transport facilities like pipelines for gases and liquids, conveyor belts for bulk material and respective storage, loading and pumping facilities. The provision of the telecommunication infrastructure (telephone, internet, high speed telecommunication cables, etc.) must also be included into master planning as well as the social infrastructure.
Planning of energy supply:
Energy supply and distribution needs to be based on an integrated system of incoming energy from outside the park and energy generation including utilisation of waste energy and renewable energies in the park. This requires an integrated electricity, gas and steam distribution network and respective energy generation, conversion and distribution facilities.
Planning of water supply, waste and wastewater treatment facilities:
Responding to the different demands for drinking and process water needed by the companies in the industrial area, several water qualities must be offered, ideally in a cascading way based on re-use concepts to save water. During master planning the required infrastructure and facilities to provide drinking and process water, and to collect and treat wastewater must be taken into account. Possibilities for rainwater harvesting could also be part of the water provision and distribution planning. Infrastructure and facilities for waste collection, transport and treatment as well as waste-to-energy plants are part of master planning too.
Planning of environmental, emergency and social facilities:
To protect the environment and to prepare for production related risks and natural disasters the parks needs respective automated monitoring systems, online reporting and supervision centres and emergency response units like fire brigades and rescue facilities. For employees and residents in the park master planning should foresee the provision of housing, shopping, education, health, sports and other recreational facilities.
There are various experiences, tools and documents on site master planning available which have been developed by GIZ and its partners.
APELL is a process designed by UNEP to identify and create awareness of hazards and risks, to initiate measures for risk reduction, accident prevention and mitigation, and to develop coordinated preparedness among the local industry, authorities and population.
APELL is a coordinated planning process that has two parallel and complementary objectives:
- Creating a dialogue about hazards, risks, capabilities and plans involving all Stakeholders, leading to consensus on responsibilities and expectations for all community members;
- Allowing a community to increase its resilience (the ability to recover from incidents) and reduce its vulnerability (susceptibility to damaging effects of a hazard) by building local capacity for multi-stakeholder responses and enabling open dialogue, building mutual understanding, and leveraging the existing resources in an effective way.
The implementation of the Sustainable Industrial Development approach in industrial areas requires comprehensive information. This includes technical data to be stored in a database (Industrial Area Information Management System) as well as geographical information to be stored and handled in a Geographical Information System (GIS).
Industrial Parks are often not well planned and have a limited number of common services. Providing such services can become very expensive at later stages as companies are not allocated or grouped well. Integrating sustainable industrial development models from the beginning could lead to win-win situations for the developer, the companies/investors, the environment and the surrounding communities.
Role and simulation games are efficient instruments to make training more lively and participatory and to better understand a complex context.
GIZ supported the development of two such games dealing with the context of sustainable industrial areas.
Industropia is a role game in which participants learn about sustainability aspects of industrial areas. The game simulates a situation in which different stakeholders of an industrial area come together to sketch a sustainability concept for retrofitting and enlargement of their site. The game is supplemented by the presence of investors which are looking for industrial areas to locate their businesses. The game is based on the experience of the GIZ Sustainable Industrial Area Working Group which emerged from the sector network TUEWAS.
Game of Zones is a learning game based on the German Sustainable Building Council (DGNB) rating system for industrial sites applied in India. The objective of the game is to learn about the different sustainability concepts, identify synergies across categories and to discuss the concepts in a team and between groups. Recently the game was amended with a component for planning adaptation of existing industrial parks to the impacts of climate change.
The overall objective of the technical cooperation on the core topic of “Planning of New Industrial Parks and Investment Zones” is to demonstrate innovative planning and designing of new or upgrading of existing industrial parks. This can be achieved by incorporating the aspects of resource efficiency, integrated environment monitoring, management structures of eco-friendly production and gender-sensitive infrastructure design. National and state level stakeholders are supported in considering the results in new strategy papers and guidelines of the government and/ or industry associations.
The pilot activities are focused in the state of Telangana (former Andhra Pradesh).
The tool presents a collection of Site Master Planning experiences from two pilot projects, namely the Green Industrial Park (GIP) Jadcherla and the Association of Lady Entrepreneurs of Andhra Pradesh (ALEAP) Green Industrial Park (A-GRIP). Both are showcases of the successful elaboration of site master planning supported by application of GIZ standards on cooperation (stakeholder involvement), processes (for involvement of stakeholders) and a strategic approach for arriving at customised, yet high quality results.
For siting of industries economic factors, such as availability of raw materials, market for finished product, transportation networks, water supply, electricity, labour availability etc., the environmental factors, such as possible adverse effects on biodiversity, natural resources, and ecosystem services, exposure to climate hazards and short- as well as long-term impacts of climate change, and social factors need to be considered.
The industries are to be benchmarked by the degree of pollution potential. Relating their degree of potential risk with the distance to site sensitivities, the suitable sites can be found. To make the tool cost effective, the assessments are undertaken at regional level followed by at site level. The regional level or macro level studies eliminate unsuitable areas and identify potential alternate sites/zones for which detailed micro level studies are then conducted to arrive at the best suitable site.
The best practice examples and manuals from India help to apply guidelines to take environmental aspects into account when setting up new industrial parks. Thus, environmental regulatory authorities are specially addressed.
Consideration of climate change aspects (Climate Risk Assessment) is presented in more detail in the Climate Change Section.
Social aspects can only be addressed if all stakeholders are involved in a participatory way. A suitable instrument is the stakeholder dialogue. Stakeholder Dialogues (SD) are used to moderate a discussion between relevant public and private stakeholders. Dialogue platforms offer a space to exchange interests or explain activities undertaken by one or the other actor.
Two forms of SDs have been implemented in GIZ projects:
- Community Dialogue Platform (CDP)
- Round Table (RT)
Both, Community Dialogue Platforms and Round Tables, shall create awareness and understanding between stakeholders, and ease potential stress and conflicts related to environmental impacts and pollution. SDs provide a basis for an interactive action planning between policy makers, community, companies and other stakeholders.
The Sustainability Calculator for Industrial Areas has been designed to guide the decision making of developers and managers of Industrial Areas (IA), who want to improve environmental and social impacts of their IA, increase their competitiveness in international markets and attract new investors and clients by integrating profitable voluntary measures into the design and management of their IA. The results generated by this tool allow estimating the potential economic benefits of voluntary investments into improving the sustainability of a IA. Additionally, they visualize the impact of potential investments on the sustainability of an IA, generating a diagram for the user that assists in identifying voluntary measures that impact positively on the sustainability of your area while simultaneously generating profits.
The calculator offers measures that can be applied to both new and existing IAs that wish to improve their performance. The tool is embedded in a web page with further information re Sustainable Industrial Areas, Testimonials from other industrial zone developers and managers re the benefits they were able to reap by investing in specific sustainability measures, and contact information for international and local experts.
Sustainable Management of Industrial Areas (SMIA, GedZI (French), ProCAIS (Spanish)) is an innovative approach to systematically improve the sustainable management of industrial areas (IA) promoting and supporting the development of resilient Industrial Areas. Industrial areas applying SMIA aim at fostering Green and Inclusive Economy
by increasing competitiveness through efficient use of both, non-renewable and renewable resources;
by generating green and decent jobs;
by minimising environmental and climate impact, as well as risks; and
by continuously improving the overall efficiency of management and cooperation structures.
Thus, SMIA contributes to the SDG goal 9 “Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure” and to climate-resilient, sustainable development.
The original method applied in 2006 by e-Parc, France, UNEP-IE Paris, and PREMAnet-GIZ drew on the combination of three well established and widely used and cost-effective methods and tools, i.e. PREMA© (www.premanet.net), APELL and Eco-mapping.
Since then, the original concept has been profoundly modified, enlarged and enhanced during applications in Tunisia (ReCapZI, CCP-RAC), Indonesia (GIZ-EU), Ghana (GIZ-PREMAnet-CAD), Peru (GIZ) and Mexico (GIZ). SMIA 4.0 version integrates more comprehensively climate change and biodiversity aspects, thus enhancing the resilience perspective (Sustainable Management of Resilient Industrial Areas SMaresIA).
A French language version (GedZI – Gestion durable des Zones Industrielles) specifically considering the situation in Tunisa was developed by GIZ ReCapZI.
A Spanish version (ProCAIS – Programa de Competitividad de Áreas Industriales a través de la Sustentabilidad) specifically consider the situation in Mexico was developed by GIZ PGAU II.
During a workshop in December 2012, the most affected Ministries articulated the priorities concerning the planning, design and setting up of industrial parks in Tunisia. The top priorities identified were the establishment of a feasibility study before setting up an industrial park, the elaboration of a Site Master Plan for each industrial park (including existing ones), the elaboration of an exhaustive list of criteria for selecting a site for industrial parks, and the elaboration of propositions for a better management within industrial parks. The elaboration of a manual that helps policy makers and planning departments to develop a Site Master Plan as a strategic tool for each industrial park followed.